Theonomy Christian reconstructionists advocate a theonomic government and libertarian economic principles. They maintain a distinction of spheres of authority between family, church, and state. However, some believe these distinctions become blurred, as the application of theonomy implies an increase in the authority of the civil government. Reconstructionists argue, though, that under theonomy, the authority of the state is severely limited to a point where only the judicial branch exists e.
After being ridiculed by Orthodox rabbis for his focus on issues in the community and the sociopolitical environment, Kaplan and a group of followers founded the Society for the Advancement of Judaism SAJ in Its goal was to give rabbis the opportunity to form new outlooks on Judaism in a more progressive manner.
Kaplan was the leader of the SAJ untilwhen Eisenstein took over. InKaplan published his book, Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American Jewish Life. It was this book that Kaplan claimed was the beginning of the Reconstructionist movement. Judaism as a Civilization suggested that historical Judaism be given a "revaluation Although Kaplan did not want Reconstructionism to branch into another Jewish denomination, it was on the inevitable track of becoming one.
At the Montreal conference inReconstructionist leaders called for a rabbinical school in which rabbis could be ordained under the Reconstructionist ideology and lead Reconstructionist congregations. By the fall ofthe Reconstructionist Rabbinical College was opened in Philadelphia.
Along with the establishment of the college, the Reconstructionist Rabbinical Association formed, which gave rabbis a strong network in the religious leadership of Reconstructionism.
Reconstructionist Reconstructionalist view of education is the first major movement of Judaism to originate in North America; the second is the Humanistic Judaism movement founded in by Rabbi Sherwin Wine.
Theology[ edit ] Kaplan believed that, in light of advances in philosophyscience and historyit would be impossible for modern Jews to continue to adhere to many of Judaism's traditional theological claims. In agreement with Orthodox theology articulated by prominent medieval Jewish thinkers including MaimonidesKaplan affirmed that God is not anthropomorphic in any way.
As such, all anthropomorphic descriptions of God are used metaphorically.
Kaplan's theology went beyond this to claim that God is not personalin that God is not a conscious being nor can God in any way relate to or communicate with humanity.
Furthermore, Kaplan's theology defines God as the sum of all natural processes that allow people to become self-fulfilled.
To believe in God means to accept life on the assumption that it harbors conditions in the outer world and drives in the human spirit which together impel man to transcend himself. To believe in God means to take for granted that it is man's destiny to rise above the brute and to eliminate all forms of violence and exploitation from human society.
In brief, God is the Power in the cosmos that gives human life the direction that enables the human being to reflect the image of God. Many are deistsand a small number accept Kabbalistic views of God or the concept of a personal God.
Much more central is the idea that Judaism is a civilizationand that the Jewish people must take an active role in ensuring its future by participating in its ongoing evolution. Consequently, a strain of Reconstructionism exists which is distinctly non-Kaplanian.
In this view, Kaplan's assertions concerning belief and practice are largely rejected, while the tenets of an "evolving religious civilization" are supported.
The basis for this approach is that Kaplan spoke for his generation; he also wrote that every generation would need to define itself and its civilization for itself.
In the thinking of these Reconstructionists, what Kaplan said concerning belief and practice is not applicable today. This approach may include a belief in a personal God, acceptance of the concept of " chosenness ", a belief in some form of resurrection or continued existence of the dead, and the existence of an obligatory form of halakha.
In the latter, in particular, there has developed a broader concept of halakhah wherein concepts such as " Eco-Kashrut " are incorporated. It does not ask that its adherents hold to any particular beliefs, nor does it ask that halakha be accepted as normative.
Unlike classical Reform JudaismReconstructionism holds that a person's default position should be to incorporate Jewish laws and tradition into their lives, unless they have a specific reason to do otherwise.
The most important distinction between Reconstructionist Judaism and traditional Judaism is that Reconstructionism concludes that all halakha should be categorized as " folkways " and not as religious law. Reconstructionism promotes many traditional Jewish practices.
Thus, the commandments have been replaced with "folkways", non-binding customs that can be democratically accepted or rejected by the congregations. Folkways that are promoted include keeping Hebrew in the prayer servicestudying Torahdaily prayer, wearing kippot yarmulkestallitot and tefillin during prayer, and observance of the Jewish holidays.
It is not a mandatory statement of principles, but rather a consensus of current beliefs. Judaism is the result of natural human development.Reconstructing Judaism is the central organization of the Reconstructionist movement.
We train the next generation of rabbis, support and uplift congregations and havurot, foster emerging expressions of Jewish life.
Section III - Philosophical Perspectives in Education Part 3. Educational Philosophies. Within the epistemological frame that focuses on the nature of knowledge and how we come to know, there are four major educational philosophies, each related to one or more of the general or world philosophies just discussed.
Reconstructionalist View of Education Essay The philosophy tot reconstruction contains two major premises: 1) Society is in need of constant reconstruction or change, and 2) such social change Involves a reconstruction of education and the use of education In reconstructing society.
Christian reconstructionism is a fundamentalist Reformed theonomic movement that developed under the ideas of Rousas Rushdoony, Greg Bahnsen and Gary North; it has had an important influence on the Christian Right in the United States.
Kabbalah (Hebrew: קַבָּלָה , literally "reception, tradition" or "correspondance": 3) is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought of Judaism. A traditional Kabbalist in Judaism is called a Mequbbāl (מְקוּבָּל ).
The definition of Kabbalah varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it, from its religious origin as an integral part of. A Reconstructionist Jew has strong commitments both to tradition and to the search for contemporary meaning.
Reconstructionists encourage all Jews to enhance their own lives by reclaiming our shared heritage and becoming active participants in the building of the Jewish future.