History and Major Authors a. Carol Gilligan While early strains of care ethics can be detected in the writings of feminist philosophers such as Mary Wollstonecraft, Catherine and Harriet Beecher, and Charlotte Perkins, it was first most explicitly articulated by Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings in the early s. While a graduate student at Harvard, Gilligan wrote her dissertation outlining a different path of moral development than the one described by Lawrence Kohlberg, her mentor.
Magazine Ethical Leadership Guide: It is a leadership issue and the chief executive must set the example. Every leader will make ethical decisions, whether or not they acknowledge them at the time. But the decisions they do make can determine whether their leadership is based on an ethical framework or not.
Before detailing a few examples of ethical leaders, we turn our attention to the advantages and disadvantages of being an ethical leader.
The idea of ethical behavior can be different depending on when, from whom and how you ask the question and therefore, the theory requires an understanding of the definition and context of ethics.
Ethical behavior is a tricky subject and the difficulties in defining ethics date back to the beginning of humanity. The definition of ethical behavior has even changed within similar cultures as society has developed and changed. According to Patricia Pinnell and Shirley Eagan from West Virginia University Extension, people use four common questions for determining the ethics of an action.
The child on your shoulder. Are you OK for doing the action, even if your children are watching? The front paper story. Are you comfortable for being on the receiving end of this action or decisions?
The rule of universality. Would it be OK if everyone in the world would behave or act that way? The idea of the questions is that if you can answer yes, the action or behavior is likely an ethical one.
Ethics is therefore open to interpretation. Nonetheless, there are a few defined interpretations of how ethics can be viewed, especially in terms of behavior.
Below chart shows some of the common ways of defining ethics. This means that the right action might be wrong in another context. As an example, you might be right to lie to someone when they ask your opinion, even though lying in other situations would be considered ethically wrong.
What is accepted and ethical in one culture might not be so in another. A modern example is the question of animal slaughter, which in certain cultures follows a strict cultural or religious code, which might seem wrong to a Westerner.
Professional ethics The right is determined by a code of ethics of a specific profession and people in the profession should follow these.
The code of ethics, or the Hippocratic Oath, is a good example of professional ethics. You should always follow your inner voice when judging your own actions. Rule-based ethics The rules of specific group or organization determine what is right.
An organization might give a guidebook that determines which behaviors are acceptable when dealing with customers, for example. Everyone should be treated fairly and equally.Cultures differ widely in their moral practices.
As anthropologist Ruth Benedict illustrates in Patterns of Culture, diversity is evident even on those matters of morality where we would expect to agree. We might suppose that in the matter of taking life all peoples would agree on condemnation.
Common Morality: Deciding What to Do [Bernard Gert] on iridis-photo-restoration.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Moral problems do not always come in the form of great social controversies.
More often, the moral decisions we make are made quietly. The ethics of artificial intelligence is the part of the ethics of technology specific to robots and other artificially intelligent beings.
It is typically  divided into roboethics, a concern with the moral behavior of humans as they design, construct, use and treat artificially intelligent beings, and machine ethics, which is concerned with the .
Care Ethics. The moral theory known as “ the ethics of care” implies that there is moral significance in the fundamental elements of relationships and dependencies in human life.
Normatively, care ethics seeks to maintain relationships by contextualizing and promoting the well-being of care-givers and care-receivers in a network of social relations.
The associate professor of psychology at the University of Virginia Jonathan Haidt has come up with a definition of Morality that is quite useful. He used secular means (the scientific method) to arrive at what he considered a sound foundation for Morality (which he denotes as synonymous with Ethics).
He has reduced Morality to be comprised of . The words "moral" and "ethics" (and cognates) are often used interchangeably. However, it is useful to make the following distinction: Morality is the system through which we determine right and wrong conduct -- i.e., the guide to good or right conduct..
Ethics is the philosophical study of Morality.. What, then, is a moral theory?