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History[ edit ] Athenian democracy held that it was every citizen 's duty to participate in decision making, but attendance at the assembly was voluntary. Sometimes there was some form of social opprobrium to those not participating. For example, Aristophanes 's comedy Acharnians 17—22, in the 5th century BC, shows public slaves herding citizens from the agora into the assembly meeting place Pnyx with a red-stained rope.
Those with red on their clothes were fined. Compulsory voting was introduced in for men  and in for women, following universal female suffrage.
If they fail to vote in at least four elections, they can lose the right to vote for 10 years. Non-voters also might face difficulties getting a job in the public sector. It is not compulsory to vote after having one's name marked on the voter list.
At that time both men and women were afforded the right to vote, a liberty which in South Australia and Western Australia preceded official independence from Great Britain. However, voting rights were confined to British subjects 21 years of age and over who were qualified to vote in state elections specifically.
Compulsory voting for national elections was introduced in Australia infollowing a pronounced fall in turnout at the federal election.
Moreover, in the states of Queensland and Western Australia, indigenous Australians were specifically disqualified, even though they were officially recognised as British subjects. Voting for Aboriginal Australians was introduced inbut enrolment and having one's name marked on the voting register was not compulsory for indigenous Australians until In practice, this appears to produce governments with more stability, legitimacy and a genuine mandate to govern, which in turn benefits all individuals even if an individual voter's preferred candidate or party is not elected to power.
This notion is especially reinforced when both men and women are required to vote, and further sustained by diligent enforcement of laws requiring registration of all eligible voters deemed adult, and without exclusion of any significant community within the population.
The idea that compulsory voting results in a higher degree of political legitimacy is based on higher voter turnout.
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The paradox disproportionately affects the socially disadvantaged, for whom the costs of voting tend to be greater. Australian academic and supporter of compulsory voting, Lisa Hillhas argued that a prisoner's dilemma situation arises under voluntary systems for marginalised citizens: However, since these are people who have a pronounced need for representation, this decision is irrational.
Hill argues that the introduction of compulsory voting removes this dilemma. In cases when the distribution of votes is very close, the elimination of the invalid vote of the resentful voter may be crucial in determining the outcome.
For example, if a voter is presented with a stand-alone touch-screen device, the integrity of the secret ballot is preserved yet the participant is unable to bypass their compulsory obligation: Supporters of compulsory voting also argue that the secret ballot is designed to prevent interference with the votes actually cast, compelling voters to the polls for an election removes interference with accessing a polling place, reducing the impact that external factors such as the weather, transport, or restrictive employers might have.
If everybody must vote, restrictions on voting are identified and steps are taken to remove them. The impact of technology and recent social trends are indicating a growing voter preference towards pre-polling: Since elections cannot be determined by turnout, they are decided by swing voters and won in the center While citizens may exercise their civil rights free speech, right to an attorney, etc.
Furthermore, compulsory voting may infringe other rights. For example, most Christadelphians believe that they should not participate in political events. Forcing them to vote ostensibly denies them their freedom of religious practice. Jehovah's Witnesses view voting as a personal decision to be made based on each one's conscience and understanding of their responsibility to God and to the Government.
Many Witnesses do not vote, while taking care to preserve neutrality and not compromise their faith.
Another argument against compulsory voting, prevalent among legal scholars in the United States, is that it is essentially a compelled speech act, which violates freedom of speech because the freedom to speak necessarily includes the freedom not to speak.
Others may be well-informed, but have no preference for any particular candidate, or may have no wish to give support to the incumbent political system. In compulsory voting areas, such people often vote at random simply to fulfill legal requirements: Robson rotation can be used to distribute the donkey vote equally among all candidates, however.
Similarly, citizens may vote with a complete absence of knowledge of any of the candidates or deliberately skew their ballot to slow the polling process and disrupt the election, or vote for frivolous or jokey candidates.
He stated the government should not force citizens to vote or threaten them with a fine. Of the 30 member states of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development10 had forms of compulsory voting.
However, in a primary election, citizens under 70 may refuse to vote if they formally express their decision to the electoral authorities at least 48 hours before the election. This must be repeated for each election in which the voter refuses to vote. Australia — Introduced for state elections in Queensland inexcluding Aboriginal indigenous Australians.
Victoria introduced compulsory voting inNew South Wales and Tasmania inWestern Australia in excluding indigenous Australians and South Australia in Introduced for national elections in for citizens aged 18 and over, but not compulsory for indigenous Australians until Writing a resume to obtain a job in Australia requires a process similar to writing a resume for employment in the United States.
Whether you live in Australia and are seeking a job or are traveling and wish to work part time to help pay for your trip, your resume should detail your education and employment history. As the successful applicant you will be required to perform repairs, maintenance and inspections on a range of customer machines.
You will apply your high level of technical skill and expertise to carry out these duties in a customer focused manner.
CV for Overseas Jobs – An Interview with Amanda van Mulligen Amanda van Mulligen was born in England and moved to the Netherlands in to live with her Dutch partner.
Write your highest achieved education in your home country (the time of your study, name of the school, subject of your study, obtained title); write also all schools in which you intend to study in Australia (the date of study, subject, name of the school).
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Everybody has done it at least once, and it’s an awful experience. The format, remembering your work experience, digging up the grades you got on the leaving and junior cert, tracking down your work experience boss and reminding him who you are to get the reference, pure suckage.