Upgrading municipal sewage treatment plants Cleaning up waterfront property and creating a public park Helping business develop ways to recycle material Kids learning to become environmental stewards at one of DEC's environmental education camps The EPF also supports the stewardship of public lands, including state parks and millions of acres of public lands throughout the state.
The Future of Natural Gas Natural gas emits 50 to 60 percent less carbon dioxide CO2 when combusted in a new, efficient natural gas power plant compared with emissions from a typical new coal plant [ 1 ]. Emissions from smokestacks and tailpipes, however, do not tell the full story.
The drilling and extraction of natural gas from wells and its transportation in pipelines results in the leakage of methane, primary component of natural gas that is 34 times stronger than CO2 at trapping heat over a year period and 86 times stronger over 20 years [ 3 ]. Whether natural gas has lower life cycle greenhouse gas emissions than coal and oil depends on the assumed leakage rate, the global warming potential of methane over different time frames, the energy conversion efficiency, and other factors [ 5 ].
One recent study found that methane losses must be kept below 3. And if burning natural gas in vehicles is to deliver even marginal benefits, methane losses must be kept below 1 percent and 1.
At least one apprenticeship is associated with working as an environmental protection specialist or environmental analyst. As with an internship, it may help aspiring environmental protection. Find Environmental Protection Agency in Gulf Breeze with Address, Phone number from Yahoo US Local. Includes Environmental Protection Agency Reviews, maps & directions to Environmental Protection Agency in Gulf Breeze and more from Yahoo US Local4/5(1). Students in 4-year bachelor's degree programs in environmental protection or environmental engineering learn about soil science, pest management, environmental policy and sustainability.
Technologies are available to reduce much of the leaking methane, but deploying such technology would require new policies and investments [ 7 ]. Burning Environmental protection 1 gas does produce nitrogen oxides NOxwhich are precursors to smog, but at lower levels than gasoline and diesel used for motor vehicles.
DOE analyses indicate that every 10, U. Reductions in these emissions translate into public health benefits, as these pollutants have been linked with problems such as asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer, and heart disease for hundreds of thousands of Americans [ 9 ].
However, despite these benefits, unconventional gas development can affect local and regional air quality. Exposure to elevated levels of these air pollutants can lead to adverse health outcomes, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer [ 11 ].
One recent study found that residents living less than half a mile from unconventional gas well sites were at greater risk of health effects from air pollution from natural gas development than those living farther from the well sites [ 12 ].
Land use and wildlife The construction and land disturbance required for oil and gas drilling can alter land use and harm local ecosystems by causing erosion and fragmenting wildlife habitats and migration patterns. When oil and gas operators clear a site to build a well pad, pipelines, and access roads, the construction process can cause erosion of dirt, minerals, and other harmful pollutants into nearby streams [ 13 ].
Water use and pollution Unconventional oil and gas development may pose health risks to nearby communities through contamination of drinking water sources with hazardous chemicals used in drilling the wellbore, hydraulically fracturing the well, processing and refining the oil or gas, or disposing of wastewater [ 15 ].
Naturally occurring radioactive materials, methane, and other underground gases have sometimes leaked into drinking water supplies from improperly cased wells; methane is not associated with acute health effects but in sufficient volumes may pose flammability concerns [ 16 ].
The large volumes of water used in unconventional oil and gas development also raise water-availability concerns in some communities.
Groundwater There have been documented cases of groundwater near oil and gas wells being contaminated with fracking fluids as well as with gases, including methane and volatile organic compounds.
One major cause of gas contamination is improperly constructed or failing wells that allow gas to leak from the well into groundwater. Cases of contamination have been documented in Ohio and Pennsylvania [ 17 ].
Another potential avenue for groundwater contamination is natural or man-made fractures in the subsurface, which could allow stray gas to move directly between an oil and gas formation and groundwater supplies.
In addition to gases, groundwater can become contaminated with hydraulic fracturing fluid [ 18 ]. In several cases, groundwater was contaminated from surface leaks and spills of fracturing fluid.
Fracturing fluid also may migrate along abandoned wells, around improperly sealed and constructed wells, through induced fractures, or through failed wastewater pit liners [ 19 ].
Surface Water Unconventional oil and gas development also poses contamination risks to surface waters through spills and leaks of chemical additives, spills and leaks of diesel or other fluids from equipment on-site, and leaks of wastewater from facilities for storage, treatment, and disposal.
Unlike groundwater contamination risks, surface water contamination risks are mostly related to land management and to on- and off-site chemical and wastewater management. The EPA has identified more than 1, chemical additives that are used for hydraulic fracturing, including acids notably hydrochloric acidbactericides, scale removers, and friction-reducing agents.
Only maybe a dozen chemicals are used for any given well, but the choice of which chemicals is well-specific, depending on the geochemistry and needs of that well [ 20 ]. Large quantities — tens of thousands of gallons for each well — of the chemical additives are trucked to and stored on a well pad.
If not managed properly, the chemicals could leak or spill out of faulty storage containers or during transport. Drilling muds, diesel, and other fluids can also spill at the surface [ 21 ].
Improper management of flowback or produced wastewater can cause leaks and spills.
There is also risk to surface water from deliberate improper disposal of wastewater by bad actors. Water Use The growth of hydraulic fracturing and its use of huge volumes of water per well may strain local ground and surface water supplies, particularly in water-scarce areas.
The amount of water used for hydraulically fracturing a well can vary because of differences in formation geology, well construction, and the type of hydraulic fracturing process used [ 22 ]. The EPA estimates that 70 billion to billion gallons of water were used nationwide in for fracturing an estimated 35, wells [ 23 ].
(1) This Act may be called the Environment (Protection) Act, (2) It extends to the whole of India. (3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint and different dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act and for different areas. 1. Key findings: Ninety-five percent of the time, communities of color living in the shadows of polluters find their claims of civil-rights violations denied by the Environmental Protection Agency, an analysis by the Center for Public Integrity shows. You conjecture that environmental protection is wrong. I say you are foolish and utterly misguided. Man has unleashed terrors upon this earth that were unimaginable several centuries ago.
Unlike other energy-related water withdrawals, which are commonly returned to rivers and lakes, most of the water used for unconventional oil and gas development is not recoverable.
Depending on the type of well along with its depth and location, a single well with horizontal drilling can require 3 million to 12 million gallons of water when it is first fractured — dozens of times more than what is used in conventional vertical wells [ 24 ].
A typical shale gas well will have about two work overs during its productive life span [ 25 ].Home › Expansion Project › Regulatory Process › Environmental Protection Plans We completed field studies in and along the proposed pipeline corridor. During these two years, we conducted a range of studies and reported and filed them with the National Energy Board (NEB) in late as part of our Facilities Application.
Nov 09, · The White House has proposed deep cuts to the Environmental Protection Agency’s budget that would reduce the agency’s staff by one-fifth in . Physical and environmental protection procedures [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]. Supplemental Guidance This control addresses the establishment of policy and procedures for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the PE family.
The Canadian Environmental Protection Act, came into force on March 31, and has been updated to include all amendments. For the original version as passed by Parliament, please refer to .
Featured Topics for Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Environmental Protection Learn about ways to protect the environment, from recycling to wetlands management to cleanup of hazardous waste sites and spills.
The Environmental Protection Indicators for California (EPIC) project is a collaborative effort of the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA), the California Natural Resources Agency (formerly the California Resources Agency), the California Department of Public Health (formerly the California Department of Health Services), and an.