Ryan Gonzalez Running head:
This is a public service of the University of California. Social psychologist Stanley Milgram researched the effect of authority on obedience. He concluded people obey either out of fear or out of a desire to appear cooperative--even when acting against their own better judgment and desires.
It is my opinion that Milgram's book should be required reading see References below for anyone in supervisory or management positions. Milgram recruited subjects for his experiments from various walks in life.
Respondents were told the experiment would study the effects of punishment on learning ability. They were offered a token cash award for participating. Although respondents thought they had an equal chance of playing the role of a student or of a teacher, the process was rigged so all respondents ended up playing the teacher.
The learner was an actor working as a cohort of the experimenter. In reality, the only electric shocks delivered in the experiment were single volt shock samples given to each teacher. This was done to give teachers a feeling for the jolts they thought they would be discharging.
Shock levels were labeled from 15 to volts. Besides the numerical scale, verbal anchors added to the frightful appearance of the instrument. Beginning from the lower end, jolt levels were labeled: Severe Shock," and, past that, a simple but ghastly "XXX. Eventually, in desperation, the learner was to yell loudly and complain of heart pain.
At some point the actor would refuse to answer any more questions. Finally, at volts the actor would be totally silent-that is, if any of the teacher participants got so far without rebelling first.
Teachers were instructed to treat silence as an incorrect answer and apply the next shock level to the student. If at any point the innocent teacher hesitated to inflict the shocks, the experimenter would pressure him to proceed. Such demands would take the form of increasingly severe statements, such as "The experiment requires that you continue.
What percentage of teachers, if any, do you think went up to the maximum voltage of ? Results from the experiment.
Some teachers refused to continue with the shocks early on, despite urging from the experimenter. This is the type of response Milgram expected as the norm. But Milgram was shocked to find those who questioned authority were in the minority. Participants demonstrated a range of negative emotions about continuing.
Some pleaded with the learner, asking the actor to answer questions carefully. Others started to laugh nervously and act strangely in diverse ways. Some subjects appeared cold, hopeless, somber, or arrogant.Collecting survey data Survey researchers employ a variety of techniques in the collection of survey data.
People can be contacted and surveyed using several different modes: by an interviewer in-person or on the telephone (either a landline or cellphone), via the internet or by paper questionnaires (delivered in person or in the mail).
As for question wording, some of the international surveys include an introduction to the question expressing the social desirability of political participation, while other attempt to reduce over reporting by eliminating social desirability pressure and instead include an introduction that normalizes inactivity.
The cognitive burden of the questions was assessed with response times. Data quality was compared in terms of drop-out rates and survey satisﬁcing the only general rules about question wording offered to questionnaire designers were in a Web experiment assessed the effects of these text features on the cognitive burden of survey.
Chapter 7 Stats! STUDY. PLAY. describing population. purpose of observational study.
Question order bias, or "order effects bias", is a type of response bias where a respondent may react differently to questions based on the order in which questions appear in a survey or interview. Question order bias is different from "response order bias" that addresses specifically the order of the set of responses within a survey question. . (b) experiments can give better evidence of cause and effect. (c) experiments involve science and chemistry. (d) an observational study cannot have a response variable. Assessing climate change beliefs: Response effects of question wording and response alternatives A split-sample question-wording experiment was embedded within an online survey conducted in June Two versions of the survey were used to control for potential order effects and cognitive consistency bias: that is, the desire to respond to.
non-response, response, question wording, interviewer, two variables (explanatory and lurking) are said to be this when their effects on a response variable cannot be distinguished from each other. sampling design.
The influence of question wording on the question. The conventional list of response components consist of comprehension, retrieval, estimation and judgment, and reporting (Tourangeau et al, ). The exact questions used in the experiment are summarized below in the Table1.
The topic of insurance rates affects all drivers, and since rates differ dramatically amongst genders, we chose this as the topic to demonstrate the effect of both the response and wording of the question .